Memorizing Music


At the 2012 National Flute Association Convention in Las Vegas, NV I attended a very helpful class on memorizing music. The class was presented by Molly Alicia Barth, and the following tips are taken directly from Molly's notes:

Memorizing Music

by Molly Alicia Barth

While learning the piece:

1. Get to know the piano/orchestral score as well as the flute part. Visualize the music, both while you are playing and during extended rests.

2. Listen to many recordings early on in the process, but avoid reliance on them too much for your own interpretation/memory work.

3. Get to know the melodic and harmonic structure of the piece. Are you in the main key of the piece, or have you shifted to a new key? Are the main notes of a passage the tonic of the key? Look for appoggiaturas and other fun notes to dote upon.

4. Practice with focused ears – do not let mistakes go unheeded! If you allow mistakes to creep in, the mistakes will come out when you really don’t want to see them.

5. Record yourself. You will learn a lot – listen to the recording carefully with the score for note/rhythm accuracy, intonation, rhythm, and phrasing.

6. Memorize the work using at least two methods, such as visualizing the music as it is printed on the page and memorizing the intervals from one note to the next. It is important to give yourself a “fall-back” method if the first doesn’t work.

7. Own the work: practice all details of your interpretation from the start of the process: dynamics, phrasing, articulations etc. must all be internalized along with the notes.

8. Learn in multiple environments. Recall of a piece is aided when you are not accustomed, for instance, only to playing the piece in your living room. Play in a variety of settings - concert halls, churches, studios, classrooms, practice rooms. Ideally, when in the learning stages, find spaces that do not cause distractions.

9. Study a work in segments, and then integrate small segments together.

10. If possible, practice with intent to memorize from the first reading of a piece.

Specifics in the memorization process:

1. Tonality 2. Motives 3. Phrase structure 4. Small segments 5. Imitative sections: check notes, rhythms, articulations, dynamics for variance 6. Choreography/movement: create movement cues to aid performance 7. Ornamentation 8. Tempo relationships 9. Composite between flute part and other performers’ parts

Ideal time frame for the memorization process: 1. Complete the entire memorization process one month prior to your first performance. In order to accomplish this, I ideally start memorizing three months or more prior to the first memorized performance. 2. Have small goals: a few measures each day/a page per week, and once you accomplish the daily goal, remind yourself of the previous days’ work by running through from the start of the work until the end-point of your daily goal. 3. Once you think you know it, start playing the piece as often as possible for a trial audience.

When you feel that you have a handle on the piece:

1. Look up – get out of “memory land”. Feel comfortable looking at your accompanist and/or audience.

2. Play for at least two peers and two superiors/mentors, at least two weeks prior to the first performance. Find people who will make you nervous, and who will offer constructive criticisms and well-deserved compliments. For example, I perform memorized works for my students and trusted co-workers, two weeks prior to the first public performance.

3. Learn to cope with distractions: improve the ability, through practice, to stay on track when something unexpected occurs (a loud noise, someone unexpectedly entering the room, etc.). The presence of an audience at the time of performance inherently means that distractions will be a part of the performance, so it is quite important not to overlook this detail.

4. Create a memorization chart. Write down or take special note of critical structural, interpretive and technical cues.

5. If your learning style permits, on the day before/day of a performance, both visualize the music in your head and also carefully look at the score or flute part.

Sources: The effects of altering environmental and instrumental context on the performance of memorized music. Jennifer Mishra and Willia M Backlin

Improving Facility in Music Memorization. Edgar Ross

Part and Whole Methods in the Memorization of Music. Cyril C. O’Brien

Preparing for Memorized Cello Performance: the role of performance cues. Roger Chaffin, Tania Lisboa, Topher Logan, Kristen T. Begosh

The Flute – Top 10 Questions a Flute Player is Asked….


1) Where does the sound come out from the flute? Most of the sound comes from the location where the air that the flutist blows strikes the flute. This is the part of the flute that is right in front of the lips and is called the “strike wall”.

2) Are flute players called flutists or flautists?

Both terms are equally correct. I personally prefer “flutist” because what is a “flaut” anyway?

3) Do you ever need a microphone for your flute when performing?

I rarely need a microphone because the flute is a very resonant instrument and its sound carries well both indoors and outdoors. I do need amplification if there is excessive ambient noise, or if I am playing in a band in which all the other members are amplified.

4) How do you hold the flute to play “air flute”?

Hold the flute out to your right with your left hand to the right of your face facing in and your right hand further to the right facing out. Both thumbs will curve naturally under the flute. For a more detailed description of holding a real flute go .

5) What are flutes made out of?

Flutes can be made of many different materials. Many student models are made of nickel or silver plated. Professional models are usually made of silver, gold, or platinum. Flutes have also been made from tin, copper, wood, plastic, carbon fiber, aluminum, palladium, bones, glass, and even carrots. My flute is silver on the inside and rose gold on the outside.

6) Can you play like Jethro Tull?

Ian Anderson is the flute player and leader of Jethro Tull. I’ve never actually spent time trying to copy him, but I do my own style of flute improvisation to various musical genres.

7) What is the difference between a flute and a recorder?

A flute is held horizontally and played by blowing across the tone hole, while a recorder is held vertically and played like a whistle. The flute has a more complex system of keys that cover the holes while a recorder simply has holes that the player has to cover with their fingers. Flutes are typically made of metal and recorders are usually made of plastic or wood. The flute is far more versatile, and most of the music written for recorders by major composers was written in the Baroque period (1680-1720).

8 ) Does playing the flute take a lot of air?

Playing the flute does take a lot of air, but it’s important to learn how to control the air than rather than just to blow hard. A flute player must learn to breathe correctly to take in the maximum amount of air and then use their muscles to support the air stream while releasing it in a very controlled manner. Good flute players also know how to correctly shape their embouchures (the way their lips are shaped) and adjust the space between their lips to focus the air so there is minimal waste. Using these techniques, a flute player can play long phrases without taking a breath.

9) Why are there holes in the keys of the flute?

Most intermediate to professional flutes have keys with holes in them. The benefit of having holes in your keys is that you can partially cover the holes and be able to play notes that are in between the normal notes of a scale. You can also use the holes to slide from one note to another note. This is particularly handy for modern music that uses extended techniques and for Irish music.

10) Why are some flutes so expensive?

Both materials and workmanship have big impacts on the price of a flute. The going price of precious metals and the amounts of those metals in a particular flute will have a strong impact on its current value. Other factors that affect the cost of a flute are the amount of handmade versus machine made parts in the flute and the quality of materials used to make the flute.

Unlike stringed instruments, flutes do not typically gain value with age. However, a well maintained flute, particularly one made of a precious medal, can retain its value. As improvements are made to the design of the flute, people tend to buy newer improved models in favor of the older styles.